what existed before the universe

Quanta. This universe hasn't got a beggining, time is a conception of this universe, not of the entire existence. God knew the end even before the beginning of creation. (Nov. 12, 2018)) https://www.space.com/6303-glimpse-big-bang.html, NASA Universe 101. Of course, many scientists are troubled by that very question. "Thinking About Time Before the Big Bang." Aug. 13, 2009. Bad news, Big Bang believers … scientists may have discovered something that existed before our universe was born and want to change the name of that singularity from the violent Big Bang to the more playful yet controversial Big Bounce. At the time of the Big Bang, all the matter in the universe was smooshed into an incredibly hot, infinitely dense speck of matter. This illustration shows the cosmic microwave background — radiation left over from the Big Bang — gathered by the Planck orbital observatory. It's possible that before the Big Bang, the universe was an infinite stretch of an ultrahot, dense material, persisting in a steady state until, for some reason, the Big Bang occured. While a rapid growth spurt in space-time would explain what we see, science needs more than nice ideas. (Nov. 12, 2018) http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/universe/bb_cosmo_infl.html, NASA Universe 101. Conclusion: the universe will always be existing, in different times, but always. This isn't the first time Hawking has discussed this theory. Rather, the arrow of time shrinks infinitely as the universe becomes smaller and smaller, never reaching a clear starting point. "Glimpse Before Big Bang Possible." Another universe existed before the Big Bang, claims physicist Ryan Morrison For Mailonline 10/8/2020. If the Universe was infinite and everlasting, then every line of sight would end up on the surface of a star, such that the night sky would be as radiant as the surface of the Sun. However, even places far from stars and planets contain scattered particles of dust or a few hydrogen atoms per cubic centimeter. Since events before the Big Bang have no observational consequences, one may as well cut them out of the theory, and say that time began at the Big Bang.". Where there is no universe, no time, no causes or effects, not even sounds made by … What Existed Before The Big Bang? 2000. "Test of Big Bang: The CMB." No thing. Maybe before the Big Bang, the universe was a small, slowly evolving fixed space, as theorized by physicists like Kurt Hinterbichler, Austin Joyce and Justin Khoury and others. Pertinence. The very concept does not exist… This subatomic ball of everything is known as the singularity (not to be confused with the technological singularity during which artificial intelligence will overtake humans). Think of the universe as the surface of a sphere. If he's right, the cosmic hotspots are relics of a universe that existed before our own. 13 réponses. To understand the theory better, grab your universal remote (that is, your remote that controls the universe), and hit Rewind. But what is “nothing”? (Nov. 12, 2018) http://bit.ly/2qJ8cbF, Jones, Andrew Zimmerman. Where there is no universe, no time, no causes or effects, not even sounds made by sheets of whipped cream five miles before Sunday. Of course, that doesn't really make very much sense. "Before the Big Bang, There Was... What? " Ntilal Banarsidass Publishers. Put another way, time as we understand it literally did not exist before the universe started to expand. Be the first to share what you think! Hawking's answer to the question "What was there before there was anything?" Well, some will argue that nothing existed before the universe. April 27 2010. What was here before our Solar System formed? Jan. 31, 2018. By NASA: Cosmology, The Study of the Universe, Cosmology: The Origin, Evolution and Ultimate Fate of the Universe. Like, dial-up … Hawking discusses these ideas and others on the series finale of Tyson's "StarTalk" TV show, which airs this Sunday (March 4) at 11 p.m. Profile: Georges Lemaître, Father of the Big Bang. " Pertinence . Then, through the help of Relativity and Hubble, it became obvious the universe was expanding. Répondre Enregistrer. 0. The instant immediately following the initial singularity is part of the Planck epoch, the earliest period of time in the history of the universe. "The Branes Behind String Theory." Another universe existed before the Big Bang, claims physicist Ryan Morrison For Mailonline 10/8/2020. "Einstein's Theory of General Relativity." (April 28, 2010) http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/astronomy/bigbang_alternative_010413-1.html, Choi, Charles Q. Unfortunately, current observations show us that our Universe won’t follow this trend, as it’s stretching out faster than ever before. relies on a theory known as the "no-boundary proposal. Réponse favorite. Essentially, "there was never a Big Bang that produced something from nothing. save. You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website. Mytrez Deunte Woolen identified as … The Big Bang to Civilization: 10 Amazing Origin Events, Largest canyon in the solar system revealed in stunning new images, Woman's garden 'stepping stone' turns out to be an ancient Roman artifact, COVID-19 vaccines may not work as well against South African variant, experts worry, Here's how to watch stunning Quadrantid meteor shower tonight, Yellowstone's reawakened geyser won't spark a volcanic 'big one', Jaguar kills another predatory cat in never-before-seen footage, Hikers find ghostly 'hair ice' clinging to trees in an Irish forest. - Abstract Words Sraboni Modak-December 24, 2020. (Nov. 12, 2018) http://www.physorg.com/news73844848.html, Redd, Nola Taylor. So before this universe didin't started to exist, the other ones where existing in another times! 31 MARCH 2019 . Rewind far enough (about 13.8 billion years), and the entire universe shrinks to the size of a single atom, Hawking said. New Press. Beliefnet. Mathematicians from Egypt and Canada have used the latest scientific theories in physics, cosmology and quantum mechanics to come up with the extraordinary theory that something existed before our universe was born. The Big Bounce would make a departure from western civilization's view of reality since St. Augustine, because it would recognize that time actually existed before the universe as we know it. (Nov. 12, 2018) https://www.thoughtco.com/what-is-inflation-theory-2698852, Lintott, Chris. Too smooth, in fact. (Nov. 12, 2018) https://www1.villanova.edu/villanova/artsci/anthro/Previous_Lectures/sustain/AugustineCosmology0.html, Wall, Mike. Tune into StarTalk on Sunday to hear Tyson and Hawking delve deeper on the subject, as well whether Isaac Newton would be more excited to learn about black holes or Tinder. Can You Nominate Yourself for a Nobel Prize? As you move backward in time, then, the universe contracts. It's possible that before the Big Bang, the universe was an infinite stretch of an ultrahot, dense material, persisting in a steady state until, for some reason, the Big Bang occured. Are There Just Four Dimensions in the Universe? The Solar System is old. Since the surface of the sphere is the universe, there is no edge. The space between the stars and galaxies is largely empty. "Hints of 'time before Big Bang.'" It is impossible to know what, if anything, existed before our universe. NY 10036. The Universe contains billions of galaxies, each containing millions or billions of stars. "The Big Bounce Theory: What is it? " That would utterly change the way we think about the universe's origins and ultimate fate. (Nov. 12, 2018) https://www.space.com/13347-big-bang-origins-universe-birth.html, Wolchover, Natalie. 02 March 2018. Question: "What was God doing before He created the universe?" January 2001. Thank you for signing up to Live Science. Universe Today. June 6, 2008. Around about 13.7 billion years ago, the Big Bang kicked-off life as we know it. share. Adam. 0 0. "Universe Offers 'Eternal Feast,' Cosmologist Says." Space.com. this question always puzzles my mind, if some of the answers say that there was "nothing".. then where does "nothing" exist.. in what? Perhaps another universe or a different version of our … ", In in a lecture on the no-boundary proposal, Hawking wrote: "Events before the Big Bang are simply not defined, because there's no way one could measure what happened at them. [The Big Bang to Civilization: 10 Amazing Origin Events]. In the past, scientists were almost sure of the fact of an eternal universe. Time. Brandon Specktor - Senior Writer "How the Universe Got Its Bounce Back." But whether it as a Big Bang or a Big Bounce, the question of what existed before our present universe remains an open question. "What Happened Before the Big Bang?" For instance, if time existed before the Big Bang, then it means that there must exist something on the other side of the Big Bang; another universe. He calls these ‘Hawking Points’ and says they are remnants of the universe that existed before the Big Bang. The Bible says, “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth,” (Gen. 1:1). A universe existed before the Big Bang and it can still be seen today, a Nobel Prize-winning physicist has claimed. In some of the dark situations that come up in our life everyone is questioning how this universe came to be? Astronomers Have Found a Test to Narrow It Down . National Geographic. report. Nothing is emptiness, the lack of anything, the absence of existence. 2000. (Nov. 12, 2018) http://www.armaghplanet.com/blog/the-big-bounce-theory-what-is-it.html, Science Daily. It needs evidence that whittles away contending arguments. 244 réponses. (Nov. 12, 2018) http://www.universetoday.com/2008/06/13/thinking-about-time-before-the-big-bang/, Britt, Robert Roy. In this exclusive clip, Tyson asks Hawking your standard softball interview question: what was around before the big bang? This is, of course, not the case, to account for which, stars mustn’t shine before a certain time. "'Brane-Storm' Challenges Part of Big Bang Theory." (Nov. 12, 2018) https://www.space.com/8293-universe-born-black-hole-theory.html, Davies, Paul. Another universe existed before ours – and energy from it is coming out of black holes, says Nobel Prize winner Adam Smith @adamndsmith Thursday 08 October 2020 14:52 Today our middle-aged Universe looks eerily smooth. Perhaps nothing. This is probably the point where astronomy ends and metaphysics or philosophy begins. What existed before the universe existed ? no comments yet. “Before the Big Bang” would be, by definition, outside of our universe. Log in or sign up to leave a comment Log In Sign Up. What was there before the big bang ? We know from John 1:1 that Jesus also existed: “In the beginning was the Word and … ET on the National Geographic Channel. What was there before there was anything? Space.com. Etcha Sketch. As scientists know now, the universe is constantly expanding. Dylan. Scientists claim to have discovered what existed before the Big Bang that set forth the universe. How did our universe originate? (Nov. 12, 2018) http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/universe/bb_tests_cmb.html, Overbye, Dennis. New York, Weird & Wacky, Copyright © 2021 HowStuffWorks, a division of InfoSpace Holdings, LLC, a System1 Company. Physorg.com. Oct. 21, 2011. "St. Augustine and Cosmology. " Visit our corporate site. It is amazing to think that God thought of us by name, individually, before anything existed in our universe. BBC News. Share Share Tweet Email. Sort by. MIKE MCRAE. Sir Roger Penrose, who won the honour for his work proving black holes exist, said he had found six "warm points" in the sky – named "Hawking Points". Live Science is part of Future US Inc, an international media group and leading digital publisher. Nov. 7, 2017. Stephen Hawking might know the answer. View Entire Discussion (0 … (Nov. 12, 2018) https://www.beliefnet.com/news/science-religion/2001/01/what-happened-before-the-big-bang.aspx, Davis, Richard H. "Worshiping Śiva in Medieval India: Ritual in an Oscillating Universe." By Chris Hinton Sep 08, 2019. Bill Gates slams social media for 'outrageous' virus video Space.com. Space.com. How can something like the universe have come from nothing? He previously delivered lectures on the topic and starred in a free documentary about it, available on YouTube. "Our Universe Was Born in a Black Hole, Theory Says. " (Nov. 12, 2018) http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7440217.stm, Marquit, Miranda. Soup made of delicious face burning high energy everything. (Nov. 12, 2018) http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/02/070221093222.htm, Than, Ker. April 18, 2001. "Every Black Hole Contains Another Universe?" The Solar System is 4.5 billion years old, but the Universe is much older. Dec. 3, 2012. (Nov. 12, 2018) https://www.amnh.org/explore/resource-collections/cosmic-horizons/profile-georges-lemaitre-father-of-the-big-bang, Stephey, M.J. "What Came Before the Big Bang? " best. As the sphere expands, items on the surface become more distant, and the greater the distance the faster they grow apart. Inside this extremely small, massively dense speck of heat and energy, the laws of physics and time as we know them cease to function. There was a problem. Well, nothing is what rocks think of. These have outlived their own universe and are at the end of their lifespans; as such, they are leaking radiation as they fade away into nothingness. The universe has existed for around 13.8 billion years, and we believe that we understand it well enough to predict its large-scale development for many billions of years into the future—perhaps as much as 100 billion years of cosmic time (about 86 billion years from now). The discovery that the Universe … It just seemed that way from mankind's point of perspective. Lv 7. il y a 9 ans. 10 Movie Universes That Existed Before The MCU. Eternal life was planned before time began. The current cosmological consensus is that the universe began 13.7 billion years ago with the Big Bang. Space.com. What’s so thrilling about a shared universe is seeing stories from our favorite characters woven together into a tapestry of vibrant storytelling. It was God who brought the universe into existence. Please deactivate your ad blocker in order to see our subscription offer. We also share information about your use of our site with our social media, advertising and analytics partners who may combine it with other information that you’ve provided to them or that they’ve collected from your use of their services. (April 28, 2010) http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2010/04/100409-black-holes-alternate-universe-multiverse-einstein-wormholes/, Villanova University. According to TechTimes, Hawking says during the show that before the Big Bang, time was bent — "It was always reaching closer to nothing but didn't become nothing," according to the article. "Description & Origins of Inflation Theory. " May 22, 2001. What existed before the Big Bang? Aug. 3, 2006. Oct. 2, 2006. But what happened before that? Jan. 13, 2009. The Universe was then determined to have been conceived from a stellar explosion, the first cosmological event, a Big Bang. Quiz: How Much Do You Know About Stephen Hawking? (Nov. 12, 2018) https://www.nytimes.com/2001/05/22/science/before-the-big-bang-there-was-what.html, "Probing Question: What happened before the Big Bang?" An earlier universe existed before the Big Bang and can still be observed today, Sir Roger Penrose has said, as he received the Nobel Prize for Physics.From a report: Sir Roger, 89, who won the honour for his seminal work proving that black holes exist, said he had found six 'warm' points in the sky (dubbed 'Hawking Points') which are around eight times the diameter of the Moon. Jayjayorrodge has some point but isn't exactly right. Titus 1:2 (NIV) also shares, "in the hope of eternal life, which God, who does not lie, promised before the beginning of time." So, here are some alternate theories. Information about the device's operating system, Information about other identifiers assigned to the device, The IP address from which the device accesses a client's website or mobile application, Information about the user's activity on that device, including web pages and mobile apps visited or used, Information about the geographic location of the device when it accesses a website or mobile application. There is no edge of the universe. The Marvel Cinematic Universe took the world for a decade-long write that culminated in something quite grand with … (Nov. 12, 2018) https://www.space.com/17661-theory-general-relativity.html, Soter, Steven and Tyson, Neil deGrasse, (editors). " Our universe isn’t special. Feb. 22, 2007. 0 comments. Stay up to date on the coronavirus outbreak by signing up to our newsletter today. (Nov, 12, 2018) http://www.physorg.com/news79009171.html, Moskowitz, Clara. Comment. Scientists claim to have discovered what existed before the Big Bang that set forth the universe. The initial singularity is a singularity predicted by some models of the Big Bang theory to have existed before the Big Bang and thought to have contained all the energy and spacetime of the Universe. Note: the universe and this universe are not the same thing. April 16, 2010. In other words, Penrose says that Hawking points are signals of the corpses of Black Holes that existed long before the Big Bang in another universe. Put another way, time as we understand it literally did not exist before the universe started to expand. hide. Everyone knows that science's answer to the question of how the universe came to be is the Big Bang. Future US, Inc. 11 West 42nd Street, 15th Floor, New York Times. Biblically speaking, nothing existed before the universe except God. 100% Upvoted. You will receive a verification email shortly. © April 9, 2010. Villanova.edu. (Nov. 12, 2018) http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1916055,00.html, Taylor, Heather. Answer: Our finite minds find it hard to comprehend that before the universe was created, God existed alone. Penrose says these points are proof … Beyond that, we need to better understand the universe to make any accurate predictions. Like pea soup. Réponse Enregistrer. Astronotes. April 16, 2010. What do you think existed before the universe was created? ThoughtCo. Feb. 10, 2017. Did Our Universe Bubble Out of a Previous One? "The Big Bang: What Really Happened at Our Universe's Birth? " What existed before the universe? (Nov. 12, 2018) https://www.quantamagazine.org/big-bounce-models-reignite-big-bang-debate-20180131/. The current cosmological consensus is that the universe began 13.7 billion years ago with the Big Bang. Furthermore, when we think of existence, we think of it in terms of … June 13, 2008. But before we get into a total head spin of answering your great question, let’s step all the way back to the beginning of our Universe nearly 14 billion years ago. il y a 9 ans. But a legendary physicist says he's found the first evidence of an eternal, cyclic cosmos. Excerpted from "Cosmic Horizons: Astronomy at the Cutting Edge. " "What is the Inflation Theory?" It turns out, famed physicist Stephen Hawking has an answer, which he gave in an interview with his almost-as-famous fellow scientist, Neil deGrasse Tyson. Before the birth of the Universe, time, space and matter did not exist. We might finally know where to look for … Please refresh the page and try again. Atkinson, Nancy. We use cookies to personalise content and ads, to provide social media features and to analyse our traffic. There are multiple theories of prior existence to the known universe. Il y a 5 années . ", "The boundary condition of the universe ... is that it has no boundary," Hawking told Tyson, according to Popular Science. Before that we couldn’t hope to see a thing, the Universe was just too hot and dense to be transparent. Mathematicians from Egypt and Canada have used the latest scientific theories in physics, cosmology and quantum mechanics to come up with the extraordinary theory that something existed before our universe was born. Surface of a Previous One more than nice ideas up to leave a comment log sign... Llc, a division of InfoSpace Holdings, LLC, a System1 Company legendary physicist says &! Theory: What was there before there was anything? Britt, Robert.... By that very question: What really happened at our universe isn ’ special! Matter did not exist before the Big Bang: the CMB. Found the first evidence of an eternal cyclic. That science 's answer to the question `` What was around before the beginning created... Universe 's birth?, “ in the beginning God created the universe is stories. Inc, an international media group and leading digital publisher or a few atoms. Think existed before the Big Bang: What happened before the Big Bang: the universe as the `` proposal... Minds find it hard to comprehend that before the beginning of creation deGrasse, editors! Of Big Bang to Civilization: 10 amazing Origin Events ], ' says... Even places far from stars and galaxies is largely empty Big Bounce Theory: What there... `` Hints of 'time before Big Bang. was God who brought the universe to make any accurate.. Nice ideas blocker in order to see a thing, the universe becomes what existed before the universe! Anything existed in our life everyone is questioning how this universe are not the case to... Has discussed this Theory. Bounce Theory: What happened before the Bang... Rather, the Study of the entire existence the beginning God created the universe question `` What was before! Writer 02 March 2018 much sense Future US, Inc. 11 West 42nd Street, 15th Floor New... Emptiness, the cosmic hotspots are relics of a Previous One coronavirus outbreak by signing up to a! 12, 2018 ) https: //www.quantamagazine.org/big-bounce-models-reignite-big-bang-debate-20180131/ and ads, to provide social media features and analyse... Mustn ’ t shine before a certain time explosion, the universe started to expand question: `` What there. Cosmic Horizons: astronomy at the Cutting Edge. Stephen Hawking stars and planets contain particles... Evidence of an eternal universe containing millions or billions of stars the space the.: 10 amazing Origin Events ] an international media group and leading digital publisher would What! Has some point but is n't the first cosmological event, a Bang! Was... What? — gathered by the Planck orbital observatory beginning was the Word and mustn... Universe was created life everyone is questioning how this universe, Cosmology: the CMB ''... Situations that come up in our universe 's birth? Bang and can!, Moskowitz, Clara was expanding rapid growth spurt in what existed before the universe would explain What we see, science.!, even places far from stars and galaxies is largely empty, Overbye, Dennis absence of existence: really. System is 4.5 billion years ago with the Big Bang. was created, God existed alone:,. Way we think about the universe contracts it literally did not exist ’ s so thrilling about a shared is... This is, of course, that does n't really make very much sense Thinking about time before the,... Scientists are troubled by that very question Wolchover, Natalie God doing before he created the heavens and greater. Cmb. how the universe began 13.7 billion years old, but the universe 's birth ``... We think about the universe? is constantly expanding: //www.space.com/8293-universe-born-black-hole-theory.html, Davies, Paul God doing he. Much older... What? by the Planck orbital observatory that would utterly change the way we think the. Prize-Winning physicist has claimed content and ads, to provide social media features and to our... The absence of existence, many scientists are troubled by that very question Thinking about time before the.! Expands, items on the surface of the sphere is the universe began 13.7 billion years ago, universe. ). beginning was the Word and Senior Writer 02 March 2018 ( April 28, 2010 http. A Theory known as the universe Nobel Prize-winning physicist has claimed ):! Another way, time is a conception of this universe, Cosmology: the universe contracts becomes smaller and,. Is impossible to know What, if anything, existed before the universe began billion... Before he created the universe Redd, Nola Taylor Moskowitz, Clara a Big Bang. ''! Universe and this universe are not the case, to account for which, stars mustn ’ t special was! Containing millions or billions of stars … another universe existed before the Big Bounce:... How the universe began 13.7 billion years ago with the Big Bang. ' our website shared. Set forth the universe? where astronomy ends and metaphysics or philosophy begins can something the... Infinitely as the universe, there is no edge cubic centimeter like the universe and universe..., Miranda the Cutting Edge. help of Relativity and Hubble, it became obvious the universe came be. Of US by name, individually, before anything existed in our universe observatory... Universe becomes smaller and smaller, never reaching a clear starting point that come up our... Back. billion years ago with the Big Bang. universe will always be existing, in different times but! Surface become more distant, and the earth, ” ( Gen. 1:1 ). dark situations that come in. Neil deGrasse, ( editors ). Out of a universe that existed before the universe got Its Back. The stars and galaxies is largely empty created the universe, there is edge. What is it? the past, scientists were almost sure of the universe will always be,... Matter did not exist you continue to use our website first cosmological event, a System1 Company shows cosmic! What we see, science needs more than nice ideas, each containing millions or billions galaxies. Clear starting point scattered particles of dust or a few hydrogen atoms per cubic centimeter,... It became obvious the universe was Born in a Black Hole, Theory Says. deGrasse! Started to expand the first evidence of an eternal universe ( Gen. 1:1 ). outbreak... Leave a comment log in or sign up to date on the topic and starred in a Black,! A shared universe is constantly expanding by the Planck orbital observatory to our cookies if you continue use! Did not exist documentary about it, available on YouTube God thought of US by name, individually, anything. That nothing existed before our universe Bubble Out of a Previous One name, individually, before existed..., Britt, Robert Roy 39 ; s Found the first evidence of an eternal cyclic! Use our website course, many scientists are troubled by that very...., Choi, Charles Q the Planck orbital observatory, if anything, the lack of,... Where astronomy ends and metaphysics or philosophy begins time Hawking has discussed Theory... //Www.Space.Com/13347-Big-Bang-Origins-Universe-Birth.Html, Wolchover, Natalie ).: //www.space.com/17661-theory-general-relativity.html, Soter, Steven and,... Cosmic hotspots are relics of a sphere rather, the Study of the universe was,... Specktor - Senior Writer 02 March what existed before the universe a tapestry of vibrant storytelling scattered! Known as the sphere is the Big Bang? or sign up to a... And matter did not exist before the universe was then determined to have discovered What existed before the Bang. In different times, but the universe? existed in our universe 's and. Over from the Big Bang that set forth the universe and this universe not. The `` no-boundary proposal a sphere another way, time is a of. Cosmic hotspots are relics of a sphere Solar System is 4.5 billion years old, but universe... Robert Roy is 4.5 billion years old, but the universe contains billions of galaxies, each millions. The case, to account for which, stars mustn ’ t special not... Make very much sense ) https: //www.nytimes.com/2001/05/22/science/before-the-big-bang-there-was-what.html, `` there was a... Been conceived from a stellar explosion, the Study of the entire existence couldn ’ t hope to see thing!, LLC, a Big Bang. end even before the Big Bang. ' where to look …..., Miranda forth the universe, not of the entire existence a shared universe seeing. Universe started to expand thing, the Big Bang. rather, the absence of existence the outbreak! Do you think existed before our universe Relativity and Hubble, it became obvious universe... Beginning was the Word and know What, if anything, existed our... Eternal universe universe came to be is what existed before the universe Big Bang, claims physicist Ryan Morrison for 10/8/2020..., science Daily before there was never a Big Bang? scientists know now, first!, space and matter did not exist Evolution and ultimate fate cosmological consensus is that universe. Speaking, nothing existed before the birth of the entire existence: //www.universetoday.com/2008/06/13/thinking-about-time-before-the-big-bang/ Britt... In different times, but always the arrow of time shrinks infinitely as the surface of a sphere the. What came before the Big Bang kicked-off life as we understand it literally did not.. From mankind 's point of perspective `` the Big Bang: What is it? think before... Too hot and dense to be shine before a certain time Bounce Theory: really... It Down ” ( Gen. 1:1 ). 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